Diabetes Mellitus is one of the rapidly emerging endocrinal disorders globally, in which blood glucose or blood sugar levels are found be elevated to than the normal levels in the body. This usually happens because of no or insufficient amount of insulin produced by your pancreas. Insulin is a hormone secreted by pancreas which helps in converting the body’s glucose into the form of energy and because of malfunctioning of pancreas the body is unable to utilize the produced insulin.
Symptoms of diabetes are
- Excessive thirst
- Frequent urination
- Increased appetite
- Dry mouth
- Blurred vision
- Tingling of hands, feet
- Dry & itchy skin.
The exact cause of diabetes is unknown, but factors such as family history, overweight, physical stress, high blood pressure, injury of pancreas, age and history of gestational diabetes may increase the risk of diabetes.
Types of diabetes
Type – 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused when body’s immune system starts attacking pancreas and results in no production of insulin. This is also known as “juvenile diabetes” or “insulin dependent diabetes” depending upon the age and onset of the condition among people living with diabetes. People with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin every day. Children (age) need support from their parents/ teachers/nurses.
Type – 2 diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, either pancreas makes insufficient amount of insulin or body is incapable of utilizing the produced insulin due to the phenomenon called “Insulin Resistance”. Majority of people diagnosed with endocrine disorder of insulin origin, usually, are from the type 2 category. With the increase in diabetic cases, it is evident that the onset of this condition can occur at any age, but people above 40 are more prone to type 2 diabetes. People around the globe are managing type 2 diabetes effectively by complying to a combination of medicines and balanced diet along with daily physical activities.
In prediabetes, blood sugar levels are slightly raised and higher than normal, yet, not as high enough to fall under any diabetes category. Prediabetes increases the risk of progression into type 2 diabetes in the next 5-7 years, almost in 90 percent cases. If not arrested at the right time, the gradually accumulated levels of glucose in the blood may result in serious problems. It can directly affect your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Unmanaged diabetes can also lead to strokes and removal of limb in some extreme cases.
This category is also known as “borderline diabetes” and people who take necessary precautions and already start with low glucose balanced diet along with exercises, often delay or prolong the disease for as long as 10-15 years. Read more to know the right way to deal with borderline diabetes.
High blood glucose levels detected during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes. Usually, gestational diabetes with minimal management will go on its own after the delivery. However, in some cases, gestational diabetes marks the onset of an increased risk of developing life-long type 2 diabetes, later in the life.
LADA (Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults)
Latent autoimmune diabetes is slow progressing form of auto immune diabetes (type1) which is often lately detected and misdiagnosed even by medical practitioners because people with LADA exhibit the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes both.
Usually, due to misdirected diagnosis, people with latent autoimmune diabetes do not take insulin for several months, even up to years leading to a chronic progression of this disease. Researchers believe and give LADA a special category of type 1.5 diabetes which requires insulin therapy to manage the condition. Extensive research is in progress globally to establish the best way to treat LADA. However, presently, LADA can be managed effectively by controlling blood glucose levels along with low carbohydrate diet, losing excess body weight, exercising regularly and complying with oral/injectable diabetes medications. However, as your body gradually loses its ability to produce insulin, you might eventually depend on insulin shots.