Diagnosing thyroid disease is a procedure that joins various kinds of investigations including blood tests, imaging tests, biopsies. Thyroid diagnostic tests help in diagnosing diseases such as Hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease, Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto’s disease, Thyroid nodules and Thyroid cancer.

Tests to be done

Blood Tests

A blood test is generally the principle test performed when a thyroid issue is suspected.

TSH Test

Thyroid stimulating Hormone test (TSH test) is the most ideal approach to evaluate the thyroid function and production of thyroid hormone in a blood test. A high TSH level and low thyroid hormone indicates hypothyroidism, while low TSH level and high thyroid hormone indicates hyperthyroidism.

T4 Test

Thyroxine (T4) is the type of thyroid hormone circulating in the blood. T4 test estimates T4 hormone precisely and reflect how the thyroid organ is working when checked with a TSH. The finding of a raised TSH and low FT4 indicates primary hypothyroidism. In hypothyroidism the levels of TSH and FT4 are low whereas in hyperthyroidism the levels of TSH are low with a raised FT4 level.

T3 Test

Triiodothyronine test (T3 test) is done to diagnose hyperthyroidism or to decide the seriousness of the hyperthyroidism. People with Hyperthyroidism will have raised levels of T3 and in certain people TSH levels will be low, T3 levels raised and normal FT4 levels. In Hypothyroidism the TSH levels are high and FT4 levels are low with normal T3.

Thyroid autoantibodies Tests

Thyroid autoantibodies test is another kind of blood test done to diagnose thyroid disorders. This test is utilized to measure the levels of thyroid antibodies when autoimmune thyroid disorder is suspected. The three primary autoantibodies that can be tested are as follows :

  • Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO):
    These are antibodies towards thyroid peroxidase; an enzyme that is required to produce T3 and T4. TPO antibodies are positive in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease.
  • Thyroglobulin antibodies:
    Thyroglobulin antibodies are markers of autoimmune thyroid disorders. Thyroglobulin antibodies are positive in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease.
  • TSH receptor autoantibodies:
    TSH receptor autoantibodies bind to the TSH receptor. TSH receptor autoantibodies are positive in individuals with Graves' disease.
Imaging Tests

At the point when your thyroid gland is enlarged, and when nodules are suspected, a variety of imaging tests are suggested to assess the thyroid condition. These tests include:

Thyroid ultrasound

Ultrasound of the thyroid is regularly used to search for thyroid cysts, nodules, lumps, goitre and suspected tumours.

CT scan

Used in the investigation of goitre and to detect any suspicious malignancy of the tumours.

MRI Scan

Used to assess the size and shape of the thyroid and also to diagnose and detect thyroid cancer.

Radioactive iodine uptake test

For this test you will swallow a limited quantity of radioactive iodine in fluid or in capsule form. During the test, you will sit in a seat and a gamma probe is placed before your neck close to your thyroid gland. The test estimates how much radioactive iodine your thyroid takes up from your blood. Estimations are frequently taken 4-6 hours after you swallow radioactive iodine and at again after 24hours. If your thyroid gathers a lot of radioactive iodine, you may have graves’ disease, or nodules that make an excessive amount of thyroid hormone.

Fine needle aspiration biopsy

Used to evaluate thyroid cysts and thyroid nodules. The procedure involves a fine needle which is inserted in the nodule/cyst and the cell/fluid is withdrawn to determine whether they are benign malignant or atypical

Urine analysis

Urinalysis viably decides whether the body is excreting an abundance of calcium or iodine. Iodine is a very important in the production of two thyroid hormones: T3 and T4. An inadequacy in iodine can cause hypothyroidism.